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Journal of Geographical Sciences    2016, Vol. 26 Issue (7) : 803-826     DOI: 10.1007/s11442-016-1300-5
Orginal Article |
Construction and progress of Chinese terrestrial ecosystem carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes coordinated observation
YU Guirui1(),REN Wei1,2,CHEN Zhi1,ZHANG Leiming1,WANG Qiufeng1,WEN Xuefa1,HE Nianpeng1,ZHANG Li1,FANG Huajun1,ZHU Xianjin1,GAO Yang1,SUN Xiaomin1
1. Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
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Eddy Covariance technique (EC) achieves the direct measurement on ecosystem carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes, and it provides scientific data for accurately assessing ecosystem functions in mitigating global climate change. This paper briefly reviewed the construction and development of Chinese terrestrial ecosystem flux observation and research network (ChinaFLUX), and systematically introduced the design principle and technology of the terrestrial ecosystem carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes coordinated observation system of ChinaFLUX. In addition, this paper summarized the main progress of ChinaFLUX in the ecosystem carbon, nitrogen and water exchange and environmental controlling mechanisms, the spatial pattern of carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes and biogeographical mechanisms, and the regional terrestrial ecosystem carbon budget assessment. Finally, the prospects and emphases of the terrestrial ecosystem carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes coordinated observation of ChinaFLUX are put forward to provide theoretical references for the development of flux observation and research in China.

Keywords eddy covariance technique      carbon-water-nitrogen fluxes      coupling cycle      coordinated observation      ChinaFLUX     
Fund:Science and Technology Service Network Initiative of CAS, No.KFJ-SW-STS-169;National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.31420103917
Issue Date: 29 July 2016
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YU Guirui
ZHANG Leiming
WANG Qiufeng
WEN Xuefa
HE Nianpeng
FANG Huajun
ZHU Xianjin
GAO Yang
SUN Xiaomin
Cite this article:   
YU Guirui,REN Wei,CHEN Zhi, et al. Construction and progress of Chinese terrestrial ecosystem carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes coordinated observation[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2016, 26(7): 803-826.
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Figure 1  Site distribution of ChinaFLUX
Figure 2  Scientific targets of ChinaFLUX
Figure 3  Scientific issues of the coordinated observation on ecosystem carbon, nitrogen and water fluxes of ChinaFLUX

C: Carbon; N: Nitrogen; GPP: Gross primary production; Ra: Autotrophic respiration; Rh: Heterotrophic respiration; ET: Ecosystem evaportranspiration; Tr: Transpiration; E: Evaporation; LUCC: Land use cover change

Figure 4  The carbon, nitrogen and water multi-elements coordinated observation system in typical ecosystems
Ecosystem types Climate zones NEP
(g C m-2
(g C m-2
(g C m-2
Flux sites References
Forest Tropical 202±47 2156±263 1954±310 XSBN, JFL Zhang et al.,2010; Chen et al., 2010
Southern subtropical 250±206 1424±81 1174±287 DHS, DG Sun et al., 2012; Yu et al., 2013b; Chen et al., 2014
550±258 1801±167 1253±226 HT, AQ, YY, QYZ, ALS Yu et al., 2013; Chen et al., 2014; Tan et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2010; Zhao et al., 2011; Han et al., 2008
Northern subtropical 343 1288 965 XP Geng et al., 2011
Warm temperate 492±37 1379±103 887±67 DX, XLD Huang et al., 2011; Zha et al., 2007; Fang et al., 2011
Temperate 302 1338 1036 CBS Yu et al., 2013b; Chen et al., 2014
Cool temperate 135±114 970±326 774±298 HZ, LS Wang et al., 2008; Cui et al., 2007; Qiu et al., 2011; Zhou et al., 2010
Grassland Temperate 24±83 282±108 260±95 DL, NM, CL, XLHT (1, 2, 3), KBQ, TY, LP, FK Yu et al., 2013b; Chen et al., 2014; FLUXNET, 2013; Du et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2011a, 2011b; Dong et al., 2011a, 2011b; Zhang et al., 2007
Alpine 45±59 470±193 424±146 DX, SJY,
Yu et al., 2013b; Chen et al., 2014; Wu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2012
Cropland Subtropical 675 1598 923 TY Zhu et al., 2005
Warm temperate 462±136 1792±64 1329±72 WS, YC Yu et al., 2013b; Chen et al., 2014; Lei et al., 2010a, 2010b
Temperate semi-arid 75 381 306 DL Zhang et al., 2007; FLUXNET, 2013
Wetland Subtropical 577±123 1553±155 977±133 DT(1,2,3) Guo et al., 2010; Yan et al., 2009; FLUXNET 2103
Warm temperate 65 1298 1233 PJ Zhou et al., 2009, 2010
Cool temperate 98±148 570±116 473±107 SJ (1,2,3) Song et al., 2007
alpine -79 489 568 HBSD Yu et al., 2013b; Chen et al., 2014
Table 1  Statistics of carbon fluxes of ecosystems in typical climate zones of China (Mean ± Standard deviation)
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