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Journal of Geographical Sciences    2015, Vol. 25 Issue (8) : 917-929     DOI: 10.1007/s11442-015-1210-y
Orginal Article |
Enhanced lakebed sediment erosion in Dongting Lake induced by the operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir
Yongqiang ZHOU1,2,3(),Jingbao LI1,*(),Yunlin ZHANG2,Xinping ZHANG1,Xichun LI4
1. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China
2. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
4. Hunan Hydro & Power Design Institute, Changsha 410007, China
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Abstract  

Based on field-survey hydrological series in the Dongting Lake watershed from 1951 to 2011, the variations of lakebed sediment siltation/erosion (S/E) regimes of the Dongting Lake after the operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were analyzed. Significantly positive correlations were found between the flow rate from Zhicheng and the Three Outlets (r2=0.859, p<0.0001), and between the flow rate and sediment delivery rate at the Three Outlets (r2=0.895, p<0.0001). This indicated that the flow rate and sediment delivery rate at the Three Outlets were largely determined by the flow rate from the upstream Yangtze River. Sediment deposition amount in the Dongting Lake basin dropped from +4796.4×104 t during the period before the operation of TGR (1999-2002) to +684.1×104 t, +449.8×104 t and -559.6×104 t during the impoundment Phases I, II and III of TGR. The S/E regimes changed from a siltation-dominant to an erosion-dominant state under the pre-discharge, water-storage and water-supplement dispatch over the impoundment from Phase I to III. The sediment deposition amount decreased dramatically under the flood-storage dispatch over the impoundment Phase I to III. The estimated annual mean flow rate, sediment delivery rate and sediment concentration thresholds were respectively 970.81 m3/s, 466.82 kg/s and 0.481 kg/m3 for the upstream Three Outlets to maintain an erosion-dominant state in the downstream linked the Dongting Lake.

Keywords The Three Outlets      The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR)      flow rate      sediment delivery rate      Dongting Lake     
Fund:National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41071067;Program of the Key Discipline Construction of the Physical Geography in Hunan Province
Corresponding Authors: Jingbao LI     E-mail: yohnchou917251@126.com;lijingbao1951@126.com
Issue Date: 17 July 2015
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Yongqiang ZHOU
Jingbao LI
Yunlin ZHANG
Xinping ZHANG
Xichun LI
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Yongqiang ZHOU,Jingbao LI,Yunlin ZHANG, et al. Enhanced lakebed sediment erosion in Dongting Lake induced by the operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2015, 25(8): 917-929.
URL:  
http://www.geogsci.com/EN/10.1007/s11442-015-1210-y     OR     http://www.geogsci.com/EN/Y2015/V25/I8/917
Figure 1  Locations of hydrological stations in the Dongting Lake watershed
Figure 2  Relationships between the flow rate at Yichang and the outflow rate from the Three Gorges Reservoir (a) and between the flow rate at Yichang and Zhicheng (b)
Figure 3  Relationships between the flow rate at Zhicheng and at the Three Outlets (a) and between the flow rate and sediment delivery rate at the Three Outlets (b)
Figure 4  Variations of runoff and sediment discharge from the Three Outlets and sediment S/E amount of the Dongting Lake in different periods of time
Period Annual mean inflow runoff Inflow sediment discharge Outflow sediment discharge Sediment
deposited
amount
Sediment
deposition
rate
TO FR UGR The sum TO FR The sum
1951-1958 1612.6 1741.9 299.1 3653.6 23041.6 4230.6 27272.2 6715.7 20556.5 75.38
1959-1966 1335.5 1536.9 225.8 3098.2 18988.3 2905.7 21894.0 5786.0 16108.0 73.57
1967-1972 1024.9 1727.9 255.3 3008.1 14174.0 4080.0 18254.0 5246.0 13008.0 71.26
1973-1980 836.5 1698.9 256.2 2791.6 11075.8 3712.5 14788.3 3828.8 10959.5 74.11
1981-1998 694.4 1702.9 316.0 2713.3 9340.7 2347.2 11687.9 2952.8 8735.1 74.74
1999-2002 624.9 1817.7 372.9 2815.5 5655.9 1171.3 6827.2 2030.8 4796.4 70.25
Table 1  Variations of annual mean runoff (108 m3), sediment discharge and deposited (104 t) and corresponding deposition rate (%) in the Dongting Lake during the time periods before the operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The Three Outlets: TO; The Four Rivers: FR; Ungauged region: UGR
Time (yr) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Dep Ero
1951-1958 -132 -183 -351 -487 565 2496 8183 7556 2731 507 -93 -219 22545 -1683
1959-1966 -124 -211 -384 -409 449 1671 5806 5284 3619 888 -184 -252 21337 -1564
1967-1972 -115 -134 -327 -405 861 1872 5364 3077 2450 700 -145 -163 14323 -1290
1973-1980 -40 -125 -185 -243 389 2017 3566 2945 2231 574 -78 -81 11722 -752
1981-1998 -83 -134 -211 -201 87 1041 4078 2519 1570 263 -87 -79 9558 -795
1999-2002 -60 -48 -150 -204 -23 754 2095 1504 995 151 -106 -78 5500 -668
Table 2  Variations of monthly mean sediment S/E amount (104 t) in the Dongting Lake during the time periods before the operation of TGR. Depo: Deposition amount; Eros: Erosion amount
Phase Phase I Phase II Phase III
Time 2003.6-12 2004 2005 2006.1-9 2006.10-12 2007 2008.1-9 2008.10-12 2009 2010 2011
Depar +14.04 +5.54 +13.52 -29.19 -18.12 +7.00 +3.29 +16.40 +0.92 +2.69 -17.29
Table 3  Departures of runoff in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River during different water impoundment phases of TGR
Time
(yr)
Annual mean inflow runoff Inflow sediment discharge Outflow sediment discharge Sediment deposited
amount
Sediment deposition rate
TO FR UGR The sum TO FR The sum
1999-2002 624.9 1817.7 372.9 2815.5 5655.9 1171.3 6827.2 2030.8 +4796.6 +70.25
2003.06-12* 551.5 724.4 155.8 1449.7 2020.9 1374.5 3415.4 716.8 +2698.6 +79.01
2004* 524.7 1499.4 306.0 2330.1 1448.0 914.6 2362.6 1429.9 +932.7 +39.48
2005* 625.6 1510.8 261.0 2397.4 2401.6 640.1 3041.7 1593.5 +1448.2 +47.61
2006.01-09* 166.5 1385.0 184.5 1736.0 162.0 1011.0 1173.0 1400.7 -227.7 -19.41
2003.06-2006.09 444.3 1521.5 258.0 2223.8 1337.2 860.5 2197.7 1513.5 +684.1 +31.10
2006.10-12** 16.1 169.3 22.6 208.0 0.0 15.7 15.7 116.5 -100.8 -642.04
2007** 543.6 1404.8 207.9 2156.3 1331.4 815.4 2146.8 1118.2 +1028.6 +47.91
2008.01-09** 456.0 1183.2 166.7 1805.9 727.4 656.7 1384.1 1191.0 +193.1 +13.95
2006.10-2008.09 418.3 1490.7 209.4 2118.4 1031.8 877.4 1909.1 1459.3 +449.8 +23.60
2008.10-12*** 72.8 329.8 46.4 449.0 4.7 133.3 138.0 551.5 -413.5 -299.64
2009*** 445.3 1346.6 228.1 2020.0 827.3 373.0 12003 1665.3 -465.0 -38.74
2010*** 566.2 1817.5 325.0 2708.7 928 1249.3 2177.3 2620.0 -442.7 -20.33
2011*** 276.2 1027.5 221.1 1524.8 148.4 201.2 349.6 1460.0 -1110.4 -371.61
2008.10-2011.12 454.1 1426.2 246.8 2127.1 659.0 653.4 1312.3 1871.9 -559.6 -42.64
2003.06-2011.12 461.6 1459.2 246.2 2167.0 997.4 751.3 1748.6 1643.3 +105.3 +6.02
Table 4  Variations of annual mean runoff (108 m3), sediment discharge and deposited (104 t) and corresponding deposition rate (%) in Dongting Lake during different impoundment phases of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The Three Outlets: TO; The Four Rivers: FR; Ungauged region: UGR, *: Impoundment Phase I; **: Phase II; ***: Phase III; “+”: deposition; “-”: erosion
Time (yr) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Depo Eros
1999-2002 -60 -48 -150 -204 -23 +754 +2095 +1504 +995 +151 -106 -78 +5500 -668
2003 -93 -127 -145 -160 -94 +333 +1752 +79 +649 -69 -26 -18 +2813 -734
2004 -18 -22 -171 -76 -79 +119 +430 +38 +844 -49 -51 -27 +1432 -493
2005 -52 -325 -100 -68 -28 +154 +582 +1137 +248 +16 -84 -29 +2137 -687
2006 -55 -56 -193 -202 -90 +85 +397 -87 -21 -28 -33 -40 +482 -805
Phase I -42 -134 -155 -115 -66 +173 +790 +292 +430 -34 -54 -25 +1685 -624
2007 -47 -39 -102 -33 -64 +124 +558 +646 +108 -56 -25 -28 +1437 -394
2008 -33 -28 -128 -109 -79 +31 +70 +402 +75 -98 -257 -58 +577 -790
Phase II -40 -34 -115 -71 -72 +78 +314 +524 +92 -42 -29 -34 +1007 -436
2009 -38 -66 -330 -258 -194 -101 +160 +550 -41 -42 -49 -54 +710 -1172
2010 -78 -35 -81 -526 -157 +51 +726 +162 +5 -247 -62 -163 +944 -1340
2011 -106 -68 -159 -85 -89 -203 +1 -78 -34 -95 -91 -98 +1 -1109
Phase III -74 -56 -190 -287 -147 -84 +296 +211 -23 -121 -115 -93 +507 -1191
Average -53 -80 -158 -168 -98 +66 +520 +317 +204 -74 -75 -57 +1106 -764
Table 5  Variations of monthly mean sediment S/E amount (104 t) in Dongting Lake during different impoundment phases of the Three Gorges Reservoir. Depo: Deposition amount; Eros: Erosion amount; “+”: deposition; “-”: erosion
Figure 5  Relationship between inflow rate from the Three Outlets and the sediment S/E rate in the Dongting Lake
Figure 6  The variations of the flow rate and sediment delivery rate of the Three Outlets and the sediment S/E rate of the Dongting Lake under different impoundment phases of TGR
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