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Journal of Geographical Sciences    2014, Vol. 24 Issue (6) : 1147-1160     DOI: 10.1007/s11442-014-1144-9
Research Articles |
Process and cause of urban-rural development transformation in the Bohai Rim Region, China
Yansui LIU1,3(),Zhichao HU1,2,Yuheng LI1,*()
1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3. College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
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China’s reform and opening-up policy has brought the country a great development opportunity. The high-speed growth of the economy not only led China to a period of industrialization, urbanization, informatization and agricultural modernization, but also exacerbated the situation of the urban-rural dual structure. Based on the review of current studies, we first used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method to evaluate the urban-rural development and transformation level by population transformation index, land transformation index, industrial transformation index and social transformation index between 1996 and 2012 around the Bohai Rim Region. Then, based on the results of each index, we used the exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) method to investigate the spatial autocorrelation of the change in the urban-rural development transformation index during the 16-year period using Global Moran’s I index and Local Moran’s I index. Finally, we investigated the mechanism of change of the urban-rural development transformation index at county level, summarizing five main factors: (1) the radiation from the surrounding big cities, (2) the acceleration of the urbanization process, (3) the upgrading of the industrial structure, (4) the publishing and implementation of a macro development strategy and regional policy, and (5) natural factors such as topology.

Keywords urban-rural development transformation      urbanization      village-town construction      Bohai Rim Region      analytic hierarchy process      ESDA     
Fund:National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41130748.No.41471143
Issue Date: 09 July 2015
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Yansui LIU
Zhichao HU
Yuheng LI
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Yansui LIU,Zhichao HU,Yuheng LI. Process and cause of urban-rural development transformation in the Bohai Rim Region, China[J]. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 2014, 24(6): 1147-1160.
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Target layer Criterion layer Calculation formula Weight Direction
Population Transformation Index
Urbanization Urban permanent resident population / regional total population 0.26 +
Proportion of labor force Population between age 15-64 / total regional population 0.25 +
Average education level (Total educated years of specific age groups / total population of these specific age groups) *100% 0.25 +
Degree of population aging Population above age 65 / total regional population 0.24 -
Transformation Index
Proportion of construction land Construction land area / total regional area 0.42 +
Proportion of cultivated land Cultivated area / regional total area 0.39 -
Proportion of rural
construction land
Countryside homestead area / construction land area 0.19 -
Industrial Transformation Index
Structure of non-agricultural output Added values of secondary and tertiary industry/ Regional GDP 0.40 +
Structure of non- agricultural employment Employed population in secondary and tertiary industry / total employed population 0.36 +
Level of agricultural mechanization Total power of agricultural machinery / total cultivated area 0.24 +
Transformation Index
Regional GDP per capita Regional GDP / total regional population 0.24 +
Living consumption level Total retail sales of consumer goods / total regional population 0.18 +
Income level of rural residents (INCOR) Net income per capita of rural residents 0.16 +
Medical and health
condition of residents
Number of beds in health institutions per 10,000 persons 0.14 +
Social security conditions Number of beds in social welfare institutions per 10,000 persons 0.12 +
Income gap between urban and rural residents Average wages of employed population in urban institutions / net income per capita of rural residents 0.16 -
Table 1  Urban-rural development transformation evaluation system
Figure 1  PTI change from 1996 to 2012
Figure 2  LTI change from 1996 to 2012
Figure 3  ITI change from 1996 to 2012
Figure 4  STI change from 1996 to 2012
Figure 5  UDTI change from 1996 to 2012
Index UDTI change PTI change LTI change ITI change STI change
Global Moran’s I 0.13 0.31 0.27 0.04 0.33
Z value 5.20 12.27 10.88 1.59 13.10
Table 2  Global Moran’s I index of the five indexes around Bohai Rim
Figure 6  The calculation of Local Moran's I index for UDTI and four indexes
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