Birks H J B, Gordon A D, 1985. Numerical Methods in Quaternary Pollen Analysis. London: Academic Press.
Cai Yao, Wang Yan, Jiang Fuchu et al., 2010. Relationship between the surface pollen and modern vegetation in Zoigê Plateau, northern Sichuan, China. Geological Bulletin of China, 29(5): 707-712. (in Chinese)
Cheng Bo, Chen Fahu, 2010. Pollen analysis of topsoil samples from Shiyang River drainage, Northwest China. Journal of Desert Research, 30(2): 350-356. (in Chinese)
Cheng Bo, Zhu Yan, Chen Fahu et al., 2004. Relationship between the surface pollen and vegetation in Shiyang River drainage, Northwest China. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 26(1): 81-88. (in Chinese)
Commission of Local Records of Luonan County (CLRLC), 1999. Luonan County Annals. Beijing: The Writers Publishing House. (in Chinese)
Davies C P, Fall P L, 2001. Modern pollen precipitation from an elevational transect in central Jordan and its relationship to vegetation. Journal of Biogeography, 28: 1195-1210.
Ding Wei, Pang Ruiming, Xu Qinghai et al., 2011. Surface pollen assemblages as indicators of human impact in the warm temperate hilly areas of eastern China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 56(11): 839-847. (in Chinese)
Editorial Board of Vegetation Map of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2007. Vegetation Map of the People's Republic of China (1:1 000 000). Beijing: The Geological Publishing House. (in Chinese)
Faegri K, Iversen J, 1989. Textbook of Pollen Analysis. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1-295.
Guo Shengqiao, Wang Yuhai, Yang Lijuan et al., 2000. Climatic change in the Ningjin Lake region since the Last Deglaciation. Quaternary Sciences, 20(5): 490. (in Chinese)
Hao Xiudong, Ouyang Xuhong, Xie Shiyou et al., 2011. The surface palynoflora from Jinfo Mountain national nature reserve, Chongqing. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 50(2): 230-239. (in Chinese)
Herzschuh U, Kurschner H, Ma Yuzhen et al., 2003. The surface pollen and relative pollen production of the desert vegetation of the Alashan Plateau, western Inner Mongolia. China Science Bulletin, 48: 1488-1493.
Hjelle K L, 1997. Relationships between pollen and plants in human-influenced vegetation types using presence-absence data in western Norway. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 99: 1-16.
Jan L, Petr S, 2003. Multivariate analysis of ecological data using CANOCO. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Li Chunhai, He Cuiling, 2004. Preparation technique of HF treatment for extracting pollen and spores from loess sediments. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica, 21(3): 346-348. (in Chinese)
Li Chunhai, Tong Guobang, Shen Ji et al., 2008. A study of surface pollen on an elevational gradient in Lijiang and Dali areas, Yunnan Province, China. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 47(2): 168-175. (in Chinese)
Li Manyue, Li Yuecong, Xu Qinghai et al., 2012. Surface pollen assemblages of human-disturbed vegetation and their relationship with vegetation and climate in Northeast China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 57(6): 453-464. (in Chinese)
Li Wenyi, 1991. Relationships between pollen and plant of the Abies fargesii forest and its succession in the Shennongjia Mountain. Acta Geographica Sinica, 46(2): 186-194. (in Chinese)
Li Wenyi, 1998. Quaternary Vegetation and Environment in China. Beijing: Science Press. (in Chinese)
Li Wenyi, Yao Zuju, 1990. A study on the Quantitative relationship between Pinus pollen in surface sample and Pinus vegetation. Acta Botanica Sinica, 32(12): 943-950. (in Chinese)
Li Yiyin, Zhang Xinshi, Zhou Guangsheng, 2000. Quantitative relationships between vegetation and several pollen taxa in surface soil from North China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 45(16): 1519-1523.
Li Yuecong, Xu Qinghai, Cao Xianyong et al., 2008. Pollen influx and surface pollen assemblage on the northern slope of Taibai Mountain. Geographical Research, 27(3): 536-546. (in Chinese)
Li Yuecong, Xu Qinghai, Xiao Jule et al., 2007. Relationship between surface pollen and vegetation in some shrub communities of Northern China. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 27(2): 205-210. (in Chinese)
Liu Hongyan, Cui Haiting, Pott R et al., 1999. The surface pollen of the woodland-steppe ecotone in southeastern Inner Mongolia, China. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 105: 237-250.
Liu Hongyan, Li Yiyin, 2009. Pollen indicators of climate change and human activities in the semi-arid region. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 48(2): 211-221. (in Chinese)
Liu Hongyan, Wang Yi, Tian Yuhong et al., 2006. Climatic and anthropogenic control of surface pollen assemblages in East Asian steppes. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 138: 281-289.
Lu Huayu, Zhang Hongyan, Wang Shejiang et al., 2007. A preliminary survey on loess deposit in Eastern Qinling Mountains (Central China) and its implication for estimating age of the Pleistocene lithic artifacts. Quaternary Science, 27(4): 559-567 (in Chinese).
Lu Huayu, Sun Xuefeng, Wang Shejiang et al., 2011a. Ages for hominid occupation in Lushi Basin, middle of South Luo River, central China. Journal of Human Evolution, 60(5): 612-617.
Lu Huayu, Zhang Hongyan, Wang Shejiang et al., 2011b. Multiphase timing of hominin occupations and the paleoenvironment in Luonan Basin, central China. Quaternary Research, 76: 142-147.
Luo Chuanxiu, Zheng Zhuo, Pan Anding et al., 2007. Distribution of surface soil spore-pollen and its relationship with vegetation in Xinjiang, China. Arid Land Geography, 30(4): 536-543. (in Chinese)
Luo Chuanxiu, Zheng Zhuo, Pan Anding et al., 2008. Spatial distribution of modern pollen in Xinjiang region. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 28(2): 272-275. (in Chinese)
Luo Chuanxiu, Zheng Zhuo, Tarasov P et al., 2009. Characteristics of the modern distribution and their relationship to vegetation in the Xinjiang region, northwestern China. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 153: 282-295.
Luo Chuanxiu, Zheng Zhuo, Tarasov P et al., 2010. A potential of pollen-based climate reconstruction using a modern pollen-climate dataset from arid northern and western China. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 160(3/4): 111-125.
Maher L J, 1981. Statistics for microfossil concentration measurements employing samples spiked with marker grains. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 32: 153-191.
Members of China Quaternary Pollen Data Base (MCQPDB), 2001. Simulation of China biome reconstruction based on pollen data from surface sediment samples. Acta Botanica Sinica, 43(2): 201-209. (in Chinese)
Nakagawa T, Tarasov P E, Nishida K et al., 2002. Quantitative pollen-based climate reconstruction in central Japan: Application to surface and Late Quaternary spectra. Quaternary Science Review, 21: 2099-2113.
Pisaric M F J, MacDonald G M, Cwynar L C et al., 2001. Modern pollen and conifer stomates from North-central Siberian lake sediments: Their use in interpreting Late Quaternary fossil pollen assemblages. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 33(1): 19-27.
Prentice I C, Cramer W, Harrison S P et al., 1992. A global biome model based on plant physiology and dominance, soil properties and climate. Journal of Biogeography, 19: 117-134.
Prentice I C, Guiot J, Huntley B et al., 1996. Reconstructing biomes from palaeoecological data: A general method and its application to European pollen data at 0 and 6 ka. Climate Dynamics, 12: 185-194.
Sang Yanli, Ma Yuzhen, Gao Shangyu et al., 2008. Pollen assemblages and numerical analysis of surface samples from Xinglong Mountain National Reserve, Gansu. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 47(4): 457-467. (in Chinese)
Shang Xue, Li Xiaoqiang, An Zhisheng et al., 2009. Modern pollen rain in the Lake Qinghai basin, China. Science China Series D (Earth Science), 39(9): 1288-1296. (in Chinese)
Shen Caiming, Liu K, Tang Lingyu et al., 2006. Quantitative relationships between modern pollen rain and climate in the Tibetan Plateau. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 140: 61-77.
Stutz S, Prieto A R, 2003. Modern pollen and vegetation relationships in Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon area, southeastern Pampa grasslands, Argentina. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 126: 183-195.
Sun Xiangjun, Song Changqing, Wang Fengyu et al., 1996. Vegetation history of the southern Loess Plateau of China during the last 100,000 years based on pollen data. Acta Botanica Sinica, 38(12): 982-988. (in Chinese)
Sun Xuefeng, Lu Hhuayu, Wang Shejiang et al., 2013. TT-OSL dating of Longyadong Middle Paleolithic site and paleoenvironmental implications for hominin occupation in Luonan Basin (central China). Quaternary Research, 79: 168-174.
Tong Guobang, Yang Xiangdong, Wang Sumin et al., 1996. Sporo-pollen dissemination and quantitative character of surface sample of Manzhouli-Dayangshu region. Acta Botanica Sinica, 38(10): 814-821. (in Chinese)
Wang Shejiang, 2005. Perspectives on Hominid Behaviour and Settlement Patterns: A study of the Lower Palaeolithic Sites in the Luonan Basin, China. BAR International Series 1406. Oxford: Archaeopress, 1-248.
Webb III T, Bryson R A, 1972. Late and postglacial climate change in the Northern Midwest, USA: Quantitative estimates derived from fossil pollen spectra by multivariate statistic analysis. Quaternary Research, 2: 70-115.
Weng Chengyu, Sun Xiangjun, Chen Yinshuo, 1993. Numerical characteristics of pollen assemblages of surface samples from the west Kunlun Mountains. Acta Botanica Sinica, 35(1): 69-79. (in Chinese)
Wu Yushu, Sun Xiangjun, 1987. A preliminary study on the relationship between the pollen percentages in forest surface samples and surrounding vegetation on West Mountain of Kunming,Yunnan. Acta Botanica Sinica, 29(2): 204-211. (in Chinese)
Xu Qinghai, Li Yuecong, Yang Xiaolan et al., 2005. Study on surface pollen of major steppe communities in northern China. Geographical Research, 24(3): 394-402. (in Chinese)
Xu Qinghai, Li Yuecong, Zhou Liping et al., 2007. Pollen flux and vertical dispersion in coniferous and deciduous broadleaved mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains. Chinese Science Bulletin, 52(5): 568-571. (in Chinese)
Xu Qinghai, Yang Zhenjing, Cui Zhijiu et al., 2002. A study on pollen analysis of Qiguoshan section and ancestor living environment in Chifeng area, Nei Mongol. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 22(4): 453-457. (in Chinese)
Xu Yingqin, Yan Shun, Jia Baoquan et al., 1996. Numerical relationship between the surface spore-pollen and surrounding vegetation on the southern slope of Tianshan Mountains. Arid Land Geography, 19(3): 24-30. (in Chinese)
Yan Shun, Xu Yingqin, 1989. Spore-pollen association in surface-soil in Altay, Xinjiang. Arid Zone Research, (1): 26-33. (in Chinese)
Yang Zhenjing, Kong Zhaochen, Yan Shun et al., 2004. Pollen distribution in topsoil along the Daxigou Valley in the headwaters of the Urumqi River, the central Tianshan Mountains. Arid Land Geography, 27(4): 543-547. (in Chinese)
Yang Zhenjing, Xu Qinghai, Meng Lingrao et al., 2003. Quantitative relationship between pollen in the surface soil and vegetation in the Yanshan area. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 27(6): 804-809. (in Chinese)
Yu Ge, Tang Lingyu, Yang Xiangdong et al., 2001. Modern pollen samples from alpine vegetation on the Tibetan Plateau. Global Ecology & Biogeography, 10: 503-519.
Yu Pengtao, Liu Hongyan, 1997. Surface pollen and its climatical significance of vertical zone in Beitai, Xiaowutai Mountain. Acta Scicentiarum Naturalum Universitis Pekinesis, 33(4): 475-484. (in Chinese)
Zhang Hongyan, Lu Huayu, Jiang Shaoyong et al., 2012. Provenance of loess deposits in the Eastern Qinling Mountains (central China) and their implications for the paleoenvironment. Quaternary Science Reviews, 43: 94-102.
Zhang Jiahua, 1998. Reanalysis of principal component analysis to resume past vegetation and environment: Taking Fenzhuang profile in Beijing as an example. Chinese Geographical Science, 8(3): 225-231.
Zhang Jiahua, Kong Zhaochen, 1999. Significance on ecological indication of Selaginella sinensis in reconstructing past environment. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica, 19(3): 530-537. (in Chinese)
Zhao Jingbo, Yue Yingli, Yue Ming, 1997. Sporo-pollen assembledge of surface earth in Quercus liadtuongensis forests in Qinling Mountain and loess areas. Scientia Geographica Sinica, 17(4): 304-309. (in Chinese)
Zhao Xiangui, Xiao Ling, Chen Cungen et al., 1999. Pollen analysis of surface soil samples from the Qinling Mountains. Journal of Northwest Forestry University, 14(1): 1-5. (in Chinese)
Zhao Yan, Herzschuh U, 2009. Modern pollen representation of source vegetation in the Qaidam Basin and surrounding mountains, north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 18: 245-260.
Zheng Zhuo, Huang Kangyou, Xu Qinghai et al., 2008. Comparison of climatic threshold of geographical distribution between dominant plants and surface pollen in China. Science in China Series D (Earth Sciences), 51(8): 1107-1120.
Zheng Zhuo, Zheng Yanwei, Huang Kangyou et al., 2009. Satellite MODIS- and modern pollen-based quantitative vegetation cover simulation in China. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica, 48(2): 228-239. (in Chinese)