Journal of Geographical Sciences ›› 2012, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (2): 301-314.doi: 10.1007/s11442-012-0928-z

• Ecological Environment • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Quantifying driving forces of urban wetlands change in Beijing City

JIANG Weiguo1,2, WANG Wenjie3, CHEN Yunhao1,2, LIU Jing4, TANG Hong1,2, HOU Peng5, YANG Yipeng5   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Environmental Change and Natural Disaster, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    3. Chinese Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China;
    4. Qinghua Urban Plan and Design Institute of Beijing, Beijing 100084, China;
    5. Satellite Environment Center, Ministry of Environmental Proection, Beijing 100029, China
  • Received:2011-05-10 Revised:2011-12-08 Online:2012-04-15 Published:2012-04-15
  • Contact: Tang Hong (1975-), Ph.D, E-mail:
  • About author:Jiang Weiguo (1976-), Ph.D, specialized in wetland ecology and flood remote sensing. E-mail:
  • Supported by:

    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171318; No.41001160; The Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, the Beijing Plan Program of Science and Technology, No.D08040600580801; International Program for Cooperation in Science and Technology, No.2009DFA91710


The decision tree and the threshold methods have been adopted to delineate boundaries and features of water bodies from LANDSAT images. After a spatial overlay analysis and using a remote sensing technique and the wetland inventory data in Beijing, the water bodies were visually classified into different types of urban wetlands, and data on the urban wetlands of Beijing in 1986, 1991, 1996, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2007 were obtained. Thirteen driving factors that affect wetland change were selected, and gray correlation analysis was employed to calculate the correlation between each driving factor and the total area of urban wetlands. Then, six major driving factors were selected based on the correlation coefficient, and the contribution rates of these six driving factors to the area change of various urban wetlands were calculated based on canonical correlation analysis. After that, this research analyzed the relationship and mechanism between the main driving factors and various types of wetlands. Five conclusions can be drawn. (1) The total area of surface water bodies in Beijing increased from 1986 to 1996, and gradually decreased from 1996 to 2007. (2) The areas of the river wetlands, water storage areas and pool and culture areas gradually decreased, and its variation tendency is consistent with that of the total area of wetlands. The area of the mining water areas and wastewater treatment plants slightly increased. (3) The six factors of driving forces are the annual rainfall, the evaporation, the quantity of inflow water, the volume of groundwater available, the urbanization rate and the daily average discharge of wastewater are the main factors affecting changes in the wetland areas, and they correlate well with the total area of wetlands. (4) The hydrologic indicators of water resources such as the quantity of inflow water and the volume of groundwater are the most important and direct driving forces that affect the change of the wetland area. These factors have a combined contribution rate of 43.94%. (5) Climate factors such as rainfall and evaporation are external factors that affect the changes in wetland area, and they have a contribution rate of 36.54%. (6) Human activities such as the urbanization rate and the daily average quantity of wastewater are major artificial driving factors. They have an influence rate of 19.52%.

Key words: urban wetlands change, remote sensing, driving forces, correlation analysis, Beijing