Brogaard S, Runnstrom M, Seaquist J W, 2005. Primary production of Inner Mongolia, China, between 1982 and 1999 estimated by a satellite data-driven light use efficiency model. Global and Planetary Change, 45: 313–332.
 Cramer W, Kicklighter D W, Bondeau A et al, 1999. Comparing global models of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP): Overview and key results. Global Change Biology, 5: 1–15.
 Fang J Y, Piao S L, Tang Z Y et al., 2001. Interannual variability in net primary production and precipitation. Science, 293: 1723.
 Field C B, Behrenfeld M J, Randerson J T et al., 1998. Primary production of the biosphere: Integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Science, 281: 237–240.
 Field C B, Malmstrom C M, 1995. Global net primary production: Combining ecology and remote sensing. Remote Sensing of Environment, 51: 74–88.
 Hicke J A, Asner G P, Randerson J T et al., 2002a. Trends in North American net primary productivity derived from satellite observations, 1982–1998. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16(2): 1018–1040.
 Hicke J A, Asner G P, Randerson J T et al., 2002b. Satellite-derived increases in net primary productivity across North America, 1982–1998. Geophysical Research Letters, 29, doi: 10.1029/2001GL013578.
 Imhoff M L, Defries R, 2004. The consequences of urban land transformation on net primary productivity in the United States. Remote Sensing of Environment, 89: 434–443.
 IPCC. Climate Change 2001: Impacts, adaption, and vulnerability. Summary for policymakers. A Report of Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, Switzerland, 2001.
 Iwasaki H, 2006. Study on influence of rainfall distribution on NDVI anomaly over the arid regions in Mongolia using an operational weather radar. SOLA, 2: 168–171.
 Li G, XIN X P, Wang D L et al., 2007. Application of improved CASA model in productivity evaluation of grassland in Inner Mongolia. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 26(12): 2100–2106. (in Chinese)
 Lieth H, 1975. Modeling the primary production of the world. In: Lieth H, Whittaker R H (eds.). Primary Productivity of the Biosphere. New York: Springer–Verlag, 237–263.
 Lobell D B, Hicke J A et al., 2002. Satellite estimates of productivity and light use efficiency in the United States agriculture, 1982–1998. Global Change Biology, 8: 722–735.
 Melillo J M, McGuire A D, Kicklight D W et al., 1993. Global climate change and terrestrial net primary production. Nature, 363: 234–240.
 Miyazaki S, Yasunari T, Miyamoto T et al., 2004. Agrometeorological conditions of grassland vegetation in central Mongolia and their impact for leaf area growth. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109(d22): D22106.
 Monteith J L, 1972. Solar radiation and productivity in tropical ecosystems. Journal of Applied Ecology, 9: 747–766.
 Nakanoa T, Nemotob M, Shinodac M, 2008. Environmental controls on photosynthetic production and ecosystem respiration in semi-arid grasslands of Mongolia. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148(10): 1456–1466.
 Potter C S, Randerson J T, Field C B et al., 1993. Terrestrial ecosystem production: A process model based on global satellite and surface data. Global Biochemical Cycle, 7: 811–841.
 Potter C S, Klooster S, Hiatt S et al., 2007. Satellite-derived estimates of potential carbon sequestration through a forestation of agricultural lands in the United States. Climatic Change, 80: 323–336.
 Prince S D, Goward S N, 1995. Global primary production: A remote sensing approach. Journal of Biogeography, 22: 815–835.
 Raich J W, Rastetter E B, Melillo J M et al., 1991. Potential net primary productivity in South America: Application of a global model. Ecological Applications, 1: 399–429.
 Ruimy A, Saugier B, Dedieu G, 1994. Methodology for the estimation of terrestrial net primary production from remotely sensed data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 99: 5263–5283.
 Running S W, Thornton P E, Nemani R et al., 2000. Global terrestrial gross and net primary productivity from the earth observing system. In: Sala O, Jackson R, Mooney H (eds.). Methods in Ecosystem Science. New York: Springer–Verlag, 44–57.
 Runyon J, Waring R H, Goward S N et al., 1993. Environmental limits on net primary productivity and light-use efficient across the Oregon transect. Ecological Application, 4: 226–237.
 Sheehy D P, 1993. Grazing management strategies as a factor influencing ecological stability of Mongolian grasslands. Nomadic Peoples, 33: 17–30.
 Sternberg T, 2008. Environmental challenges in Mongolia’s dryland pastoral landscape. Journal of Arid Environments, 72: 1294–1304
 Sun Rui, Zhu Qijiang, 2000. Distribution and seasonal change of net primary productivity in China from April, 1992 to March, 1993. Acta Geographica Sinica, 55(1): 36–45. (in Chinese)
 Wang X M, Xia D S, Wang T et al., 2008. Dust sources in arid and semiarid China and southern Mongolia: Impacts of geomorphological setting and surface materials. Geomorphology, 97: 583–600.
 Xiao X M, Boles S, Liu J Y et al., 2002. Characterization of forest types in northeastern China, using multi- temporal SPOT-4 VEGETATION sensor data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 82: 335–348.
 Xiao X M, Hollinger D, Aber J D et al., 2004. Satellite-based modeling of gross primary production in an evergreen needleleaf forest. Remote Sensing of Environment, 89: 519–534.
 YoshiharaY, Chimeddorj B, Buuveibaatar B et al., 2008. Effects of livestock grazing on pollination on a steppe in eastern Mongolia. Biological Conservation, 141: 2376–2386.
 Yuan J G, Niu Z, Wang C L, 2006. Vegetation NPP distribution based on MODIS data and CASA model: A case study of northern Hebei Province. Chinese Geographical Science, 16(4): 334–341.
 Zhang B L, Tsunekawa A, Tsubo M, 2008. Contributions of sandy lands and stony deserts to long-distance dust emission in China and Mongolia during 2000–2006. Global and Planetary Change, 60: 487–504.
 Zhou Y, Zhu Q, Chen J M et al., 2007. Observation and simulation of net primary productivity in Qilian Mountain, western China. Journal of Environmental Management, 85: 574–584.
 Zhu W Q, Pan Y Z, Long Z H et al., 2005. Estimating net primary productivity of terrestrial vegetation based on GIS and RS: A case study in Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of Remote Sensing, 9(3): 300–307. (in Chinese)
 Zhu W Q, Pan Y Z, Zhang J S, 2007. Estimation of net primary productivity of Chinese terrestrial vegetation based on remote sensing. Journal of Plant Ecology, 31(3): 413–424. (in Chinese)